Anti-Microbial (Moldoveanu, Zina, et al, "Antibacterial Properties of Milk; IgA_ Peroxidase-Lactoferrin Interactions" Annals of N.Y. Academy of Science, (1983) Vol. 409, 848-850.
Conneely, OM. Anti-inflammatory activities of lactoferrin. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 20(Suppl.5):389S-395S (2001). Lactoferrin inhibits dermal inflammatory cytokine production and acts as a potent anti-inflammatory protein at local sites of inflammation, including the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.
Borody, TJ, et al. Tunnel vision in the bowel. Center for Digestive Diseases (2001). Review of irritable bowel syndrome, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, and its etiology, including infective agents such as Shigella and Campylobacter. Infections of the gut are difficult to treat because no antimicrobial therapy is available that is effective against Clostridia spores. Only bovine colostrum has proven clinical efficacy in eradicating intestinal pathogens, such as rotavirus, and may help control the infections seen in chronic disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome due to the number of biologically active components in colostrum. The growth factors in colostrum help heal intestinal erosions and ulcerations. It also contains anti-inflammatory factors and is nutrient rich. Colostrum may be used alone or in combination with other anti-inflammatory and/or immune substances. Future research should focus on identifying immune strategies, novel delivery systems and identification of the bioactives in colostrum.
Britigan, BE, et al. The role of lactoferrin as an anti-inflammatory molecule. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 357:143-156 (1994). While the role of lactoferrin in providing non-specific immunity is well documented, it also plays a role in the anti-inflammatory response through its antioxidant effect.
Buescher, ES, McWilliams-Koeppen, P. Soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) receptors in human colostrum and milk bind to TNF-alpha and neutralize TNF-alpha bioactivity. Pediatric Research 44(1):37-42 (1998). The ability of colostrum to modulate the inflammatory response is unique. One of the ways in which it does this is through TNF-a receptor proteins, which are found in colostrum. These bind to TNF-a, which inactivates the TNF-a. TNF-a is the activator of the entire inflammatory cascade, so by controlling its activity, colostrum controls the degree of the inflammatory response and can shut it off altogether.
Goldman, AS, et al. Anti-inflammatory properties of human milk. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 75(5):689-695 (1986). The major anti-inflammatory components found in human milk (and bovine colostrum) include anti-proteases, lactoferrin, lysozyme, secretory IgA, and a number of antioxidants, including cysteine, ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene.
Kim, K. et al, "In Vitro and In Vivo Neutralizing Activity of Human Colostrum and Milk Against Purified Toxins A and B of Clostridium Difficle" Journal of Infectious Diseases (1984) Vol. 150 (1) 57-61.
McConnell, M.A.; Brooks, H.J.L.; Borissenko, M.B.; Buchan, G. A comparative study of immunoglobulin feels and anti-inflammatory activity in four milk products. Journal of Dairy Science. Publication forthcoming.
Murphey, DK, Buescher, ES. Human colostrum has anti-inflammatory activity in a rat subcutaneous air pouch model of inflammation. Pediatric Research 34(2):208-212 (1993). In an experimental animal model using subcutaneous air pouches in rats, colostrum showed significant anti-inflammatory activity.
Playford, RJ, et al. Bovine colostrum is a health food supplement which prevents NSAID induced gut damage. Gut 44:653-658 (1999). Although non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are very effective in controlling joint pain in arthritis, their use also causes significant, and sometimes fatal, gastrointestinal damage. Supplementation with colostrum, however, significantly reduced and healed injury caused by NSAIDs.
Playford, RJ, et al. Co-administration of the health food supplement, bovine colostrum, reduces the acute non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced increase in intestinal permeability. Clinical Science 100:627-633 (2001). Another study by Dr. Playford on the ability of colostrum to prevent damage due to NSAID use. This study showed that colostrum also prevents an increase in gastrointestinal permeability due to NSAID use, whereas NSAID use alone without colostrum causes an increase in permeability.
Wada, N., et al, "Neutralizing Activity Against Clostridium Difficile Toxins in the Supernatant of Cultured Colostral Cells" Infectious Immunology (1980) Vol. 29, 545-550.
"Glycoproteins in bovine colostrum inhibit the attachment of the Helicobacter pylori bacteria that cause stomach ulcers. Colostrum contains significant amounts of interleukin-10, a strong inflammation inhibitory agent found significant in reducing inflammation in arthritic joints and injury areas," wrote Dr. Olle Hernell, from the University of Ulmea, Sweden, in Science magazine.